Friday, December 28, 2007

Landslide-prone Tungsung

Courtesy Mr Udhyan Rai Editor (19Sep2007)

Landslides and related phenomena are a common occurrence in and around Darjeeling. Records since 1849 show sharp acceleration in landslide rates. In 1899, the first major landslide occurred in Tungsung followed by others in 1934, 1950, 1968 and 1980.

The TungSung area of Darjeeling town is a densely populated commercial urban tract situated along the eastern spur of the Jalpahar • Lebong ridge and cover an area of 1.8 sq. Km.

The area is composed of rocks belonging to the Darjeeling Gneiss group. Such rocks are generally highly jointed and weathered. Fresh rock has been found along some very steep slopes.

Highly weathered rock and talus materials are found around St. Paul’s School, while the vertical rock face below the school joints dipping N 50 ˚W • 550 ˚E, N 75 ˚W • S 75˚ E, N 25˚ E • S 25˚ W and N 30˚ E • S 30˚ E. Foliation is also common and the prominent altitudes are N 30˚ E • S 30˚ W dip 6˚ and N 10˚ E • S 10˚ dip 25˚ .

Two major inclined faults have been recognized of which one is near the TungSung ZigZag and other near the Dengle Jhora. Granites also found around the St. Paul’s tennis court. Garnetiferous granite is found along the Tenzing Norgay road and a pegmatite vein has been identified near ZigZag.

A rocky slopes and hilltops show a thick mantle of brown sandy micaceous soil with rock fragments varying from large blocks to boulder and pebble sizes. The eastern slope of the Katakpahar • Jalpahar ridge along which TungSung is situated is one of the steepest parts of the town, where average slope is between 30˚ • 40˚ and as high as 60˚ • 65˚ in some places.

The slope show a predominance of convexity and rectilinear. However, minor concavity has developed due to slope failures e.g. Dengle Jhora and Manpari Busty.

The hill slopes are heterogeneous in profile, being commonly flatter towards the crest and steeper down hill. The overburden of course, textured soil has varying capacity to retain moisture and rest on rocks of variable dip, composition and decay and generally tends to slide down-slope as and when stress concedes resistance.

Landform and slope development is often controlled by the relative degree of physical and chemical weathering of rocks. Initially, the fragmentation is controlled in terms of size by the spacing of litho logical and structural discontinuities in the parent rocks followed by further splitting.

Bedrock is thus degraded into a colluvial mantle, which covers a large part of the TungSung area in the form of stress and debris.

Soil in the TungSung area is leached, gravelly and grey to brown in colour with soil • profile varying in the thickness from 0.1 m to 9.0m depending on the degree of slope,

Vegetation and nature of parent minerals. Very thick soil profiles ranging from 5 to 9 m have been found near Dengle Jhora, the youth hostel and St. Paul’s School main gate. Very shallow to skeletal soil • profiles have been located between Dengle Jhora and Manpari Busty. The two types of soil that have been identified are:
1. Micaceous sandy soil with poor cohesion, and
2. Brown, clayey soil with decomposed mica, sand and rock fragments with good cohesion.

While landslides generally occur during heavy rain but the action of the precipitated water is more like the trigger of a gun since it delivers the last blow when other factors have already brought the slope nearly to the point of failure.

The annual precipitation of this region ranges between 2650 to 2900mm. Rainfall is concentrated from June to September. High intensity rainfall associated with cloud burst has been found to occur quite frequently and perhaps contributes the trigger Mechanism that initiates the slide.

The ISI Seismic zone map of India 1971 places the TungSung area in zone V, and the related co-efficient should be taken into consideration in formulating the design and layout of buildings and other constructions.

The eastern spur of the Jalpahar • Lebong ridge is composed of soil, talus and scree materials, which are liable to slip unless suitable protective measures are adopted. The foliation dips of gneissic rocks are easterly at an angle varying from 15˚ to 25˚, while the dominant slope vary from 40˚ to 60˚ towards the east. Hence, if a suitable condition prevails, the top layers may either creep or slip downwards.

Although under normal circumstances such slopes may appear stable, sudden overloading of them through heavy precipitation or construction may reduce the shearing resistance of their component material causing them to ultimately yield under gravitational pull.

It has been observed that except in 1934, all major landslide events had occurred after heavy and continuous rain, which triggered the slides when other factors had already brought the slope near to the point of failure.

It is evident that the force causing slips is the combination of weight of the materials and gravity, with gravitational pull increasing when the slope has been steepened either due to under cutting by drainage elements or by human agencies.

In TungSung area, most buildings constructed after buildings, back cutting into the hill face (even in culverts or Jhoras) for developing new building sites. Widening of terraces by dumping of soil along their edge in Rock Ville area led slipping along the edge, which could not be prevented merely constructing retaining wall or protection wall.

Before taken up of any type of construction soil testing is very important but very few construction Cos. such as five elements construction Co stick to this rule. Deep soil in the area, which is derived from the underlying gneisses, shows progressive deterioration of shearing resistance by weathering following from formation of clay minerals from feldspar and biotitic.

Landslides are a pertinent natural phenomenon over the TungSung area. While they cannot be prevented entirely, they can be checked to a large extent. It is an obligation, therefore on the part of every individuals and concerned local elected and empowered agencies dealing with the welfare of people and beautiful mother town Darjeeling to implement remedial measures already suggested by professionals and their various studies from time tot time.

Slopes 0˚ to 15˚ are the most suitable for urban uses, 15˚ to 30˚ is suitable for certain specific uses, 30˚ to 45˚ is suitable for small residential construction, 45˚ to 60˚ can only be use under very specific categories. Slope above 60˚ is very dangerous to use.

Soil types of TungSung and their characteristics indicate that dominant soil is loamy sand to sandy loam. Perpetration resistance ranges between 4.5 kg /sq. cm to 6.6 kg /sq. cm, corresponding to the strength suitable for the construction of two to three storied buildings but unfortunately there are so many four to seven storied gigantic buildings standing in this area, which is very risky and dangerous in near future. Local administrative authorities and elected bodies must take strict necessary steps to check such dangerous constructions. Slope materials of this are is highly sensitive and no further construction should be allowed there.

Mr. Sangay Tashi Dugpa
Tenzin Norgay Road
Tenzing Norgay Building


Comment by praful rao

I met Mr Udhyan Rai, the webmaster and editor of (DT), just a few days back in Kalimpong. I was quite surprised that both savethehills (STH) and DT were working on the same issue 4 months ago when the mountains were cracking up all over the district.
I reproduce the above article and photo with his kind permission (italics are mine)

Saturday, December 22, 2007

A reminder to the District Magistrate


The District Magistrate,



Meeting with departments involved with preventive action against landslides

Dear Sir,

Reference is made to the meeting held at the Circuit house, Darjeeling on 02 Nov2007 between representatives of “savethehills” and Mr A Purkayastha (IAS), Principal Secretary, Disaster Management, Govt of W Bengal.

2. It is roughly halfway between the end of the last monsoons (Sep2007) and the beginning of the next one (May2008). As you know many areas of the district were severely damaged by landslides in Sep2007 – some such hazard zones (an example is the area around Mr Anil Shankar’s residence in the Homes dispensary area, Kalimpong – photos of which can be seen at and some parts of Harsingh bustee, Darjeeling) which have human habitation will, in all probability collapse in the next monsoons unless adequate preventive action is taken now.

3. As was decided during the meeting in Circuit house on 02 Nov2007, and in view of the fact the monsoons are barely 4 months away, we request you to kindly convene a meeting with all departments concerned with prevention of landslides (including those under Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council -DGHC) to check the progress of measures being undertaken and allow selected representatives of civil society attend the same.

Thanking you

(Prafulla Rao)

Wg Cdr (retd)



Copy to:-


Comment by Praful Rao

The above letter has been couriered to both the DM and the CPS (DGHC) on 21Dec2007. A press release to that effect has also been given.

Tuesday, December 18, 2007

Taking stock ..and an image to remind us of what happened in Sep2007

Having reached the halfway mark between the end of the monsoons (Sep2007) and the beginning of another one (May2008) it is time we took stock and evaluate just what has happened since Sept2007and looked what needs to be done further:-

What we know:-

a) The Government of West Bengal and DGHC (Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council) at the highest levels, have been made aware of the extent of damage caused by the Sep 2007 rains and necessity of preventive action against landslides. I am personally aware that some Govt officials have taken reports/ photographs from .

b) Public awareness about landslides and slide prevention has increased a lot, thanks to a intense press coverage by the local media (both electronic and print).

c) After a gap of 8 yrs some funds have been released to the Irrigation Dept in Kalimpong for landslide prevention works. There are 13 odd projects for which schemes have been sent to DGHC, this would amount to a requirement of Rs1.5crore approx, the money sanctioned till date however is a pittance.
I am not aware of any preventive work taking place in other parts of the district due to lack of inputs from those areas.

d) The PWD (Public Works Dept) is also doing some preventive work in landslide zones next to the roads. Two places where these are taking place are at 14th mile, 11thmile, in Kalimpong.
Again no inputs from other areas of the district.

e) Geological Survey of India (GSI) has carried out a detailed survey of Kalimpong and its surroundings. 2 scientists were here for 11days and some of us at savethehills were actively involved in taking them to landslide areas. We will obtain the reports as and when they are released.

I have no inputs regarding Darjeeling and other towns.

f) We held a very successful public demonstration on 17Nov2007 demanding preventive action against landslides. This is the first one of its kind as far as I know and the SDO (Sub Divisional Officer), Kalimpong had promised to hold a meeting between the concerned departments working in slide prevention and us. That is yet to materialize.

What we will be doing:-

a) Requesting the SDO, Kalimpong for a meeting with the concerned departments working in slide prevention.

b) Continuing with awareness programs. We will be carrying out these in schools, clubs and so on.

Any other suggestions??

I would hate to assume that any of the positive developments (like the GSI visit) which have been enumerated above are the result of savethehills action. Whereas some preventive work is taking place at least in Kalimpong, the measures being taken are far from adequate and too slow.

Some time ago, a friend of mine told me that I was unduly worried, that nature operates in cycles and seldom does disaster strike the same area repeatedly. So most probably next year and perhaps for many years to come, the monsoons will be more kind to us than in 2007.

With four months to go for the rains, I just HOPE what he told me is true.

Friday, December 14, 2007

Press coverage of FAX ( refer earlier blog)

Disaster cell cry in hills


Kalimpong, Dec. 12: Save The Hills (STH), a conglomeration of different hill-based organisations, has called for the setting up of a nodal agency to deal with disaster management in Darjeeling district.

In a letter faxed to chief minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee yesterday, the conglomeration said the agency was necessary because at present both the Bengal government and the DGHC were handling disaster management separately in the hills.

“We were informed that prevention of disaster was not the responsibility of the district magistrate (alone) since many of the departments concerned with preventive work were not under them (him). This is contrary to the (provisions of the) Disaster Management Act 2005,” read the letter.

The act says all aspects of disaster management will come under the purview of a district authority headed by the district magistrate.

STH convener Praful Rao said the letter was drafted after discussion on disaster management with member organisations after the September landslides.

The conglomeration came into being in November and is yet to be registered.

Since September, the members made field visits to many landslide-affected areas. The STH had also assisted a two-member team of the Geological Survey of India during their 10-day study trip to Kalimpong that concluded yesterday.

The STH in its letter to the chief minister has also suggested the inclusion of the Darjeeling district in natural disaster surveys carried out in Sikkim.

Wednesday, December 12, 2007

FAX to the Chief Minister, West Bengal (sent under a covering note on 11Dec2007)

Landslide hazard Darjeeling District : Points for consideration/implementation

The monsoons this year have caused tremendous damage in the hills of Darjeeling district. Though the documentation is by no means complete, a record of some of the devastation caused is available at both in terms of photographs as well as reports.

The Prime Minister in his inaugural address in the first Disaster Management Congress, New Delhi in Nov2006 spoke of the need to shift the focus of disaster management from a “relief-centric” and “post-event” response to “a regime that lays greater emphasis on preparedness, prevention and mitigation”.

In keeping with this and also the fact that this area is the most landslide prone in the country (as per GSI) and lies in zone IV of the earthquake hazard zone, we at “savethehills” (a group of concerned citizens in Darjeeling district), feel that preventive and mitigation action against landslides needs to be accelerated so as to minimize loss of life and property in the future. At the same time, post disaster management plans/methods should look towards managing a large scale disaster in mountainous terrain during the monsoons since the possibility of a super cyclone (such as SIDR in Nov2007) striking this area cannot be ignored.

In this regard, we would like to bring to your notice the following:-

1. Necessity of correcting an anomaly

It was apparent from our meeting with some state Govt officials, that in Darjeeling District, both the State Govt and DGHC were jointly in charge of disaster management. We were informed, that prevention of disaster was NOT the responsibility of the District Magistrate since many of the departments concerned with preventive work were not under him.

This is contrary to the Disaster Management Act 2005 Chapter IV (District Disaster Management Authority) Para 30 (Powers and Functions of District Authority) and needs to be addressed immediately.

MOST IMPORTANTLY: - A single nodal body may be identified in the district which is empowered to take ALL necessary action to deal with natural disaster in its entirety.

2. Urgent need to identify Critical Landslide Hazard Areas and carry out preventive action.

During the surveys carried out, we observed that some populated areas were in such a deteriorated condition that they would certainly collapse in heavy, incessant rain as can be expected in the next monsoons. Such areas need to be identified urgently and necessary work carried out on a war footing so as to mitigate or prevent landslides in such locations. This short term preventive work would mainly consist of repairing/ changing/ strengthening of the jhoras (mountain rivulets) and drainage system in these areas.

Drainage and jhora management is understandably a massive project which will require dedicated work on a long term basis also, besides requiring huge financial expenditure. An inventory (supported by mapping) of jhoras needs to be made and repair work prioritized since much of the landslide problem in 2007 arose from inadequate, antiquated and neglected drainage system (inclusive of jhoras) which could simply not handle the high volumes of water flowing in from the hugely increased/expanded urban areas. Since the survival of a large number of people in the district depends on tackling the drainage problem, the sooner this is done the better.

Also this would be wholly in keeping with the provisions of the Disaster Management Act 2005 Chapter IV (District Disaster Management Authority) Para 30, 31 (Powers and Functions of District Authority and District plan).

3. Mid term and Long term Preventive Action.

Besides these firefighting measures, mid term and long term preventive action also needs to be taken order to reduce soil erosion and landslides in the hills. Systematic soil mapping surveys in the district maybe undertaken and experts from such organizations as GSI or IITs may be brought in to suggest mid and long term solutions to the landslide problem which would then have to be implemented without fail.

4. Important Points requiring Attention.

We, at “savethehills” have discussed landslides and disaster management extensively since Sep2007, and the many points that have emerged as regards the possible causes and solutions are already documented at

Some of these in brief are:-

a) Relocation of people from vulnerable areas

Though a thorny and difficult subject to handle, this will be necessary in the future.

As such vulnerable zones maybe identified and further construction of settlements in these areas stopped forthwith, also contingency plans for relocating people from these areas (if not already available) maybe drawn up. Otherwise we will be faced with the problem of having large numbers of climate refugees in the future.

b) Development of satellite townships

Our major towns are highly overcrowded with no land available for further growth and population pressure adds to the landslide hazards in these towns by increasing illegal construction and construction in landslide prone areas. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop satellite townships to reduce the population pressure on the main towns. These maybe planned in unpopulated khasmal areas, defunct tea gardens, wasteland or by sheer necessity, in land under the forest dept.

c) Checking of unplanned urban growth and abiding with regulations

It is unfortunate that though regulations are in place regarding height of buildings, soil testing, road construction and so on; scant attention has been paid to any of these, resulting in unplanned and rampant urban growth.

Whereas it may not be possible to reverse this, it is possible to prevent further damage by strictly enforcing regulations and imposing fines/ resorting to legal action against all those who flout these rules.

In this regard, no construction should be permitted in slopes of 40 degrees or more.

d) Afforestation plans

Afforestation programs needs to be pursued vigorously especially in denuded areas (to reverse the loss of forest cover to the maximum extent possible). In this regard it was observed that bamboo groves were a major contributor towards landslides in 2007 as such planting alternative and appropriate types of deep rooted trees must be undertaken in landslide prone areas.

e) Inclusion of Darjeeling district in all natural disaster surveys undertaken in Sikkim.

In Nov2007 a high level Central Team toured Sikkim to assess the damage caused by the rains in Sep (in response to a request made to the Prime Minister by the CM, Mr P Chamling). Though Darjeeling district is contiguous to it and a part of the same geographical area no damage assessment was carried out here even though in all probability the damage if equal to if not greater than in Sikkim. The monsoons punish Sikkim and the Darjeeling hills equally, hence damage assessments and repair work must also be identical.

f) Increase of compensation for loss of home/ life and payment without delay.

The present rate of compensation paid for loss (damaged to house 2000/-; total loss of home - 4000/- etc) due to natural calamity is totally inadequate and needs to enhanced substantially. Also compensation is often paid after much delay and harassment; this must stop forthwith and loss must be compensated as soon as possible.

g) Compensation for loss of land to farmers.

A major difference between floods and landslides is that in the former, the victims after the waters recede can return to their land; whereas in landslides there is often nothing to return to. Farmers who have lost their land in slides may therefore be adequately compensated with land since they depend on it for sustenance.

h) Installation of Early Warning System against landslides

The Centre for Disaster Management at Vellore has developed several schemes for early warning against landslides; since this area is the most landslide prone in the country it naturally follows that landslide prediction equipment should be installed and manned by qualified personnel in the most hazardous and heavily populated areas of our towns before the next monsoons.

j) Reducing landslide hazards in the vicinity of new road construction sites.

Newly constructed roads were observed as the source of many fresh landslides as such bringing new roads plans under the purview of environment impact assessment (EIA) maybe considered.

k) Necessity of Awareness Programs

Landslides in the hills are largely caused by man interacting with nature. One of the key long term solutions will be raising public awareness regarding causes of landslides, necessity of afforestation and so on. The Govt together with NGOs should play a leading role in this field.

In this regard the nearest GSI office (at Gangtok) maybe tasked with the responsibility of holding landslide workshops in Darjeeling district at frequent intervals.

l) Transparency in fund utilization

Preventive work against landslides will undoubtedly involve huge expenditure. Corruption if unchecked will lead to poor quality of work which in turn will result in loss of life and property. It is therefore necessary to have stringent checks in place to minimize corruption and to ensure funds are utilized correctly, since our very survival in the hills will depend on these measures being taken.
In this regard, the administration would inspire public confidence if regular press releases were given as regards the progress of preventive measures being taken or completed.

Inclusion of prominent citizens / NGOs or representative from social organizations from the planning to execution stage of preventive measures being taken would also go a long way to increasing transparency as regards proper fund utilization.

m) NGO participation in Landslide Surveys

Landslides often take place in remote areas which may not come to the notice of the Government machinery. In order to get a more accurate assessment of the situation, local people/ NGOs who are familiar with the terrain or region must be co-opted with teams carrying landslide surveys.

n) Checking the inventory of Relief Materials supplied to make it specific to Landslides in Mountainous Terrain.

Relief material doled out during the landslides of Sep2007 were inadequate and in some cases inappropriate. Whereas strict measures would be required to ensure that relief reached deserving, affected people, the inventory of relief materials needs to be checked to ensure that warm clothing (instead of clothes meant for flood affected areas in the plains) and rations (to last at least a week) are included along with other relief material such as plastic sheets/tarpaulin.

o) Periodic check of Efficacy of Preventive/Relief measures at the Sub-Division Level

If not already being done, SDOs maybe directed to check the efficacy of preventive and relief measures periodically all through the year. This, in the pre monsoons could amount to checking the progress of cleaning, clearing blockages in the drainage system, taking stock of relief materials etc and in the post monsoon period it could assess the efficacy/ lacunae of the preventive/relief measures taken with a view to improve on these. Detail checklists maybe drawn up and municipal authorities, NGOs and social organizations may be included in the meetings.

praful rao

Monday, December 10, 2007

An update on the GSI visit

2 scientists/geologists from the Geological Survey of India have been in Kalimpong for 10 days now, surveying the landslide situation in and around Kalimpong and I am glad to tell u that we have developed a good rapport with them.
We accompanied them on two of their visits showing them some slides which are documented here at "savethehills", then interacted with them on numerous other occasions. I am confident that Kalimpong and its surroundings has come under the scanner by appropriately qualified people as far as landslides are concerned.
We do not know what they will report but what we do know now is that we can BUY their report from GSI, Eastern Region, Kolkatta. We shall certainly do that and insist that these reports be read and recommendations followed instead of being buried in dust in some Govt office.

Again I do not know whether a similar exercise could be carried out in other parts of the district. I certainly feel that local people and NGOs should be more proactive and get involved in meeting and guiding landslides survey teams to affected areas since we know best where the landslides are. The team also saves a lot of time scouting around for slides which took place 4 months back! Also this is our home and if we aren't interested in doing anything about it, who else would be bothered?
I have certainly recommended this in a FAX (which i know, i know is woefully delayed) to the Chief Minister, West Bengal which I shall send today.

praful rao

Saturday, December 8, 2007

Good news for Kalimpong

On 08Dec2007 at 1100hrs a peace march was organized to protest against the recent 5 day strikes and the way rival political party loyalists openly displayed lethal weapons on the streets of Kalimpong for days, while the administration and law enforcement just stood by watched.
The organizers were senior citizens with no political affiliation who had formed a loose group called the CITIZEN'S RIGHT FORUM. About 10-15000 people from all walks of life took to the streets in support of this issue and the requirement of having peace in the hills as a forerunner to any progress here.
The event received wide press coverage.
I, personally am glad that the ordinary citizen who has for years cowered in terror in some corner is finally coming out and speaking.

If you wonder what all this has to do with landslides, well it is just this - finally the ordinary citizen has to assert him/herself to ask for whatever is his or her right..
like landslide prevention which neither the Govt nor political parties are too bothered about.

praful rao

Friday, December 7, 2007

First Landslide Awareness Program in Kalimpong - 06Dec2007

The first landslide awareness program was held at Tapoban, Upper Cart Road, Kalimpong on 06Dec2007 at 1700hrs - thanks to the Rotary Club of Kalimpong.

The program was anchored by Rtn Bharat Mani Pradhan and attended by 40 odd persons including two geologists from Geological Survey of India and a few non Rotary club members.

Wg Cdr Praful Rao (retd) began the program with a 40 mins power point presentation on the landslide situation in Kalimpong due to the Sep2007 rains. This included a slide show of the various landslides which had taken place in the vicinity of Kalimpong and also in Darjeeling.

There after, there was a an interactive session for approximately one hour 20mins where persons in the audience asked the GSI scientists questions about landslides and related issues.

This was followed by brief insight by Mr UM Pradhan, town planner and engineer, into the necessity of setting up satellite towns in the district in order to relieve population pressure in the main towns of Darjeeling, Kalimpong , Kurseong and Mirik.

The meeting ended at 1900hrs.

praful rao

Wednesday, December 5, 2007

3 months later - Despair and a glimmer of hope...

Three months after Sep2007 rains, as we toured some affected areas with a specialist team we saw despair and hopefully a glimmer of hope :-

Slide 1: Anil Shankhar in front of his new house. Nothing has changed here since Sept and I had no answer to Mr Shankhar's question "what should I do now?"

Slide 2: It is hard to imagine that Tirtirey jhora (rivulet) which is now a dry stream is the cause of all the devastation around Anil Shankhar's village. An entire hillside with many homes and residences is sliding down because of the jhora's rampage in the monsoons.
On 03Dec2007, there was no repair ("training") work being done on the jhora and there are 5 months for the next monsoons.

Slide 3: Some jhora training work has started in 14the mile though and this jhora is the cause of an entire hillock at Sangsay Phatak sliding down.

Slide 4: Jhora training work at a sinking area (Ghatey Khola) at 11th mile, Kalimpong

Whereas it is good that some preventive work has started, let us not be naive and think decades of neglect can reversed in the spate of a few months or years.
Right now the funds being allocated are in penny packets and will not even touch the tip of the iceberg even if there were no corruption.
But all of us know there is corruption - BIG, BIG CORRUPTION...
so just what awaits us in 2008?

praful rao

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Fed up with text? Here are some graphics...

Harvesting Rocks in Dec2007
(Kafley Gaon, Lower Ecchay Bustee, Kalimpong )

Kafley Gaon, Lower Ecchay, Kalimpong has some of the most fertile farmlands in Kalimpong on 01Dec2007 it was the picture of rural bliss -terraced fields bathed in warm, balmy sunshine.

Approx four months back, however things were more ugly.
In a classic case of landslides caused by man interacting/ interfering with nature, farmers living directly above the area shown diverted a huge amount of the overflowing rainwater towards this piece of land – this was done not out of any malice but of sheer necessity since there are no drains in the area to carry away the excess water.

As a result ,today, a significant part of Krishna Adhikari’s farmland is a mass of rocks.

We do not have any data on how much land has been lost by farmers this year but what is known is like Krishna Adhikari, most have yet to receive any compensation what so ever for their loss.

praful rao